XALTÚN - Archeologen hebben in Guatemala de oudst bekende Maya-kalender gevonden. Op een muur van een huisje in ruïnestad Xaltún zijn berekeningen gevonden over de zon, Venus en Mars. De kalender zou afrekenen met de hardnekkige mythe dat de wereld in 2012 vergaat.
De kalender moet in de negende eeuw zijn opgesteld, zo staat te lezen in een artikel in National Geographic en Science. De muren van het huis zijn beschreven als een soort schoolbord, met ingewikkelde kalenderberekeningen. De hiërogliefen lijken volgens archeoloog William Saturno van de universiteit van Boston op een poging een groot wiskundig probleem op te lossen.
Een student vond de kalender, die de belangrijke cycli voor de Maya's beschrijft, in 2010. Goed nieuws voor doemdenkers: volgens een van de auteurs van het artikel rekent de kalender af met de mythe dat de wereld in december 2012 vergaat. De kalender in Xultún loopt nog 7000 jaar door.
De onderzoekers denken dat dit jaar de telling van de Maya's gewoon opnieuw begint. Saturno: „De Maya's zochten naar een garantie dat niets zou veranderen. Ze voorspelden dat de wereld er over 7000 jaar nog steeds zo uitziet als nu.”
----------- stippellijntje, hier afknippen ----------------------->8----------------------------------
Nou, tot zover onze nieuwsvoorzieners van de lage landen. Drie objectieve (HAHAHA) nieuws-gierigen hebben dezelfde 'bron' letterlijk overgenomen. Daar is vast gedegen onderzoeksjournalistiek aan voorafgegaan.
"...We’ve all heard by now that the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar only goes up to 2012. That is why some people think that the end of the world is near. Online portal YouGov launched a survey asking people how they would spend their last months on earth, assuming that the Mayans were right and the world was about to end in 2012. The majority would spend their last months with their family and friends, but right after that, 22% would travel the world. Later on, only travel bloggers were questioned. They elected India, Iceland, China, Argentina and Antarctica as the five countries you have to see before the end. When the actual end of the world is about to come, again most would spend this moment at home with their family.
What are the points on your end of the world bucket list?..."
Laast bewerkt: 11 maanden, 1 week geleden Door Het Dolle Eland.
(Phys.org) -- Archaeologists working at the site of La Corona in Guatemala have discovered a 1,300 year-old year-old Maya text that provides only the second known reference to the so-called “end date” for the Maya calendar on December 21, 2012. The discovery, one of the most significant hieroglyphic find in decades, was announced today at the National Palace in Guatemala.
“This text talks about ancient political history rather than prophecy,” says Marcello A. Canuto, Director of Tulane’s Middle American Research Institute and co-director of the excavations at the Maya ruins of La Corona. “This new evidence suggests that the 13 Bak’tun date was an important calendrical event that would have been celebrated by the ancient Maya; however, they make no apocalyptic prophecies whatsoever regarding the date," says Canuto.
La Corona for many decades has been known as the enigmatic “Site Q,” the source of many looted sculptures whose whereabouts had remained a mystery until its rediscovery only fifteen years ago. For the past five years, Marcello A. Canuto and Tomás Barrientos Q. (Director of the Centro de Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Antropológicas at Universidad del Valle de Guatemala) have directed the La Corona Regional Archaeological Project (PRALC) which has been investigating this intriguing Classic Maya city and its jungle environs.
In 2012, Canuto and Barrientos decided to excavate in front of a building that had been heavily damaged nearly 40 years ago by looters looking for carved stones and tombs. “Last year, we realized that looters of a particular building had discarded some carved stones because they were too eroded to sell on the antiquities black market,” said co-director Barrientos, “so we knew they found something important, but we also thought they might have missed something.” In fact, in 2012, excavations not only recovered 10 more discarded hieroglyphic stones but also something that the looters missed entirely—an untouched step with a set of 12 exquisitely carved stones still in their original location (in total, 22 carved stones were recovered). Combined with the known looted blocks, the original staircase had a total of no less than 264 hieroglyphs, making it one of the longest ancient Maya texts known, and the longest in Guatemala.
While the archaeological team investigated when and how this particular staircase was built, Dr. David Stuart, director of the Mesoamerica Center of the University of Texas at Austin undertook the decipherment of the many new hieroglyphic texts. Stuart was part of the first archaeological expedition to La Corona in 1997, and has been reading and reconstructing the site’s history ever since. The stairway inscription relates 200-years’ worth of political history of La Corona, its allies, and its enemies. Consistent with these themes, some of these stones portray rulers in various poses accepting tribute, dancing, and preparing to play the Maya ballgame.
Another entirely unexpected discovery was made on another stairway block bearing 56 delicately carved hieroglyphs. Stuart recognized that it commemorated a royal visit to La Corona in AD 696 by the most powerful Maya ruler of that time, Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’ of Calakmul (located in modern Campeche, Mexico), also known as Fire Claw or Jaguar Paw. Calakmul had been an immensely powerful kingdom for centuries until its king was defeated in battle by his longstanding rival Tikal (located in modern Peten, Guatemala) on August 3, 695. “Scholars had assumed that the Calakmul king died or was captured in this engagement” says Stuart, “but this new extraordinary text from La Corona text tells us otherwise.”
Maya Scholar Deciphers Meaning of Newly Discovered Monument That Refers to 2012
Credit: University of Texas
A publishing and entertainment empire has arisen around the supposed Mayan “end date” of December 21, 2012. But a second reference to the date, discovered only recently in Guatemala by a team including UT’s David Stuart, further debunks the theory that the Maya expected the world to end. In this slideshow, including images from National Geographic, see the discovery at La Corona and read how the Maya used the date simply as “a literary device.”
Archaeologists working in the jungles of Guatemala have discovered an ancient Maya text that refers to the so-called end date of the Maya calendar, Dec. 21, 2012. The hieroglyphic inscription was unearthed in April at the ruins of La Corona, located in the dense rainforest of northwestern Guatemala, and deciphered by David Stuart of The University of Texas at Austin during his research at the site in May.
The text is one of many found this year by an international team led by archaeologists from Tulane University and the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. Among their discoveries are portions of the longest text ever discovered in Guatemala, carved on multiple staircase steps and recording 200 years of La Corona’s history, now being closely studied by Stuart and his colleagues. The discovery, perhaps the most significant hieroglyphic find in decades, was announced at a news conference held this morning at the National Palace in Guatemala City.
The stone referring to the year 2012 was carved to commemorate a royal visit to La Corona (which the ancient Maya called Saknikte’) by the ruler Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’ from the great Maya capital of Calakmul on Jan. 29, 696 A.D. Before the discovery, this ruler was thought by scholars to have been killed in battle, when Calakmul was defeated by its great rival, Tikal. But the new find makes it clear that Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’ was visiting allies — such as La Corona — in the wake of this defeat, possibly soothing their fears after such a significant military loss.
Why the reference to the year 2012? “The reason mostly has to do with the cosmological dimensions of ancient Maya politics and kingship,” says Stuart. “Calakmul’s king had only recently celebrated an important ending of 13 K’atun calendar cycle, in the year 692 (126.96.36.199.0), and in this text he is called a “13 K’atun lord.” The scribe has used this important ritual fact to project forward to when the next higher period of the Maya calendar will also reach 13 — a sacred Maya number — which will come on Dec. 21, 2012 (188.8.131.52.0).”
Ker Than for National Geographic News Published July 20, 2012
Some 1,600 years ago, the Temple of the Night Sun was a blood-red beacon visible for miles and adorned with giant masks of the Maya sun god as a shark, blood drinker, and jaguar.
Long since lost to the Guatemalan jungle, the temple is finally showing its faces to archaeologists, and revealing new clues about the rivalrous kingdoms of the Maya.
Unlike the relatively centralized Aztec and Inca empires, the Maya civilization—which spanned much of what are now Guatemala, Belize, and Mexico's Yucatán region (Maya map)—was a loose aggregation of city-states. (Read about the rise and fall of the Maya in National Geographic magazine.)
"This has been a growing awareness to us since the 1990s, when it became clear that a few kingdoms were more important than others," said Brown University archaeologist Stephen Houston, who announced the discovery of the new temple Thursday.
El Zotz, in what's now Guatemala, was one of the smaller kingdoms, but one apparently bent on making a big impression.
By 2010 archaeologists working on a hilltop near the ancient city center had discovered 45-foot-tall (13-meter-tall) Diablo Pyramid. Atop it they found a royal palace and a tomb, believed to hold the city's first ruler, who lived around A.D. 350 to 400.
Around the same time, Houston and a colleague spotted the first hints of the Temple of the Night Sun, behind the royal tomb on Diablo Pyramid. Only recently, though, have excavations uncovered the unprecedented artworks under centuries of overgrowth.
Video: Archaeologist Stephen Houston on the Temple Find
The sides of the temple are decorated with 5-foot-tall (1.5-meter-tall) stucco masks showing the face of the sun god changing as he traverses the sky over the course of a day.
One mask is sharklike, likely a reference to the sun rising from the Caribbean in the east, Houston said.
The noonday sun is depicted as an ancient being with crossed eyes who drank blood, and a final series of masks resemble the local jaguars, which awake from their jungle slumbers at dusk.
In Maya culture the sun is closely associated with new beginnings and the sun god with kingship, Houston explained. So the presence of solar visages on a temple next to a royal tomb may signify that the person buried inside was the founder of a dynasty—El Zotz's first king.
It's an example of "how the sun itself would have been grafted onto the identity of kings and the dynasties that would follow them," he said in a press statement.
Maya archaeologist David Freidel added, "Houston's hypothesis is likely correct that the building was dedicated to the sun as a deity closely linked to rulership. The Diablo Pyramid will certainly advance our knowledge of Early Classic Maya religion and ritual practice."
Houston's team also found hints that the Maya, who added new layers to the temple over generations, regarded the building as a living being. For example, the noses and mouths of the masks in older, deeper layers of the temple were systematically disfigured.
"This is actually quite common in Maya culture," Houston told National Geographic News. "It's very hard to find any Mayan depiction of the king that doesn't have its eyes mutilated or its nose hacked ... but 'mutilation' is not the appropriate term to describe it. I see it as more of a deactivation.
"It's as if they're turning the masks off in preparation for replicating them in subsequent layers ... It's not an act of disrespect. It's quite the opposite."
(Also See "End of World in 2012? Maya 'Doomsday' Calendar Explained.")
"Gold Mine of Information"
Maya scholar Simon Martin said the masks on the newfound El Zotz temple are "completely unique" and valuable, because they could help verify theories about Maya portrayals of the sun god.
"We have images of the sun god at different stages ... but we've never found anything that puts it all together," said Martin, of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, who was not involved in the project.
"We've had to assemble [the sequence] from bits and pieces of information and just trust that we got it right. This could be an opportunity to see the whole thing stage by stage."
The temple is also wonderfully well preserved, Martin added, making it a "real gold mine of information."
"We've seen a few places where whole buildings have been preserved," he said. "But normally what happens is [the Maya] smashed up a building and then built on top of it, so when you dig into a building you don't find very much of their decoration."
By contrast, Maya workers at El Zotz went to great pains to preserve the original temple structure, going so far as padding it with earth and small rocks before building on top of it.
(Take a Maya quiz.)
Archaeologist Karl Taube points out the craftsmanship of the masks. "They're three-dimensional. The faces push out of the side of the facade. You don't really see that very often ... because if they project too much they fall off. But here they were able to pull it off.
"With the play of light on these things, the faces would have been extremely dramatic," said Taube, of the University of California, Riverside (UCR),who also was not involved in the project.
Project leader Houston added that the masks' color—crimson, according to paint traces—would have also helped them stand out. "With that bright red pigment, it would have had a particularly marked effect at dawn and at the setting of the sun," Houston said.
Blazing red and perched on high, the Temple of the Night Sun was meant "to see and to be seen," Houston said.
Importantly, it would have been noticeable from Tikal, a larger, older, and more powerful kingdom that El Zotz may or may not have been on friendly terms with.
"We tend to think of kings being completely autonomous, but for the Maya, a sacred king was often part of a hierarchy of kings," the Penn Museum's Martin said.
"So the people at El Zotz at times may have been heavily under the influence of Tikal, and when powers were weak at Tikal, they may have been completely independent or may have linked themselves with more powerful kings somewhere else."
"A Lot More Discoveries" to Come?
Despite the obvious care that was taken to construct and preserve the newfound temple, it wasn't used for long. Evidence at the site suggests the building was abandoned sometime in the fifth century, for reasons unknown.
"It's like they just dropped their tools and left" in the middle of once again expanding the temple, Houston said. "I think what you're looking at is the death of a dynasty."
The answer to this mystery and others could become evident as more of the Temple of the Night Sun is uncovered.
"Only 30 percent of this facade has been exposed," UCR's Taube said. "I think there're going to be a lot more discoveries and a broader understanding of what this building actually shows in the future."
'End of capitalism': Bolivia to expel Coca-Cola in wake of 2012 Mayan 'apocalypse'
In a symbolic rejection of US capitalism, Bolivia announced it will expel the Coca-Cola Company from the country at the end of the Mayan calendar. This will mark the end of capitalism and usher in a new era of equality, the Bolivian govt says.
December 21 of 2012 will be the end of egoism and division. December 21 should be the end of Coca-Cola,” Bolivian foreign minister David Choquehuanca decreed, with bombast worthy of a viral marketing campaign.
The coming ‘end’ of the Mayan lunar calendar on December 21 of this year has sparked widespread doomsaying of an impending apocalypse. But Choquehuanca argued differently, claiming it will be the end of days for capitalism, not the planet.
“The planets will align for the first time in 26,000 years and this is the end of capitalism and the beginning of communitarianism,” said Choquehuanca as quoted by Venezuelan newspaper El Periodiquito.
The minister encouraged the people of Bolivia to drink Mocochinche, a peach-flavored soft drink, as an alternative to Coca-Cola. Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez followed suit, encouraging his country to ditch the American beverage for fruit juice produced in Venezuela.
Last year, Bolivia became the second Latin American country not to have a single McDonald’s. The fast food giant finally gave up on Bolivia after being unable to turn a profit in the country for over a decade.
Following this failure, the monolithic multinational released a documentary titled ‘Why McDonald’s failed in Bolivia.’ Referencing surveys, sociologists, nutritionists and historians, the company came to the conclusion it was not their food that was the issue, but a culturally driven boycott.
Bolivian President Evo Morales has a reputation for controversial policies similar to the Coca-Cola ban. Morales pledged last month to legalize the consumption of coca leaves, one of the main ingredients of cocaine.
“Neither the US nor capitalist countries have a good reason to maintain the ban on coca leaf consumption,” said Morales.
The coca leaf was declared an illegal narcotic by the UN in 1961, along with cocaine, opium and morphine. The consumption of coca leaves is a centuries-old tradition in Bolivia, strongly rooted in the beliefs of various indigenous groups.
Ignore Second-Hand Information … Hear the Real Prophecy
Preface: The Mayan 2012 end of the world “prophecy” is scaring the pants off numerous children and suicidal teeangers. 1-in-10 people believe that the Mayans have prophesied the end of the world (and see this). A Google search for "Maya 2012" currently brings up 325 million hits, only slightly less than a search for the most popular words.
This post is a public service announcement to reach children and adults scared about the Mayan prophecy … to show with the Mayan priests’ own words that the world will not end in 2012.
Many people are talking about the Mayan 2012 prophecy.
But few know what the Mayan priests actually said about 2012.
In reality, Mayan elders say something very different from what you might have heard.
For example, Wakatel Utiw – leader of the National Council of Elders Mayas, Xinca and Garifuna, Day Keeper of the Mayan Calendar, and 13th generation Quiche Mayan Spiritual Leader - says that the end of the Maya calendar has nothing to do with the end of the world.
He also explains that December 21, 2012 might not even be the end of this cycle of the calendar:
Contrary to popular belief the living elders of the Maya do not agree that December 21, 2012 is the end of their calendar. A new “Sun” represents the beginning of a new Long Count cycle in the calendar system of approximately 5,200 years, which they say may not happen for many years.
And see this.
(A brand new film called “Shift of the Ages” tells the Mayans’ beliefs in detail … and gives their true warnings.)
Similarly, Tz’utujil Mayan elder Tata Pedro Cruz says that the world will not end in 2012:
Mayan elder and priest Carlos Barrios – who has extensively studied the Mayan calendars – says:
Anthropologists visit the temple sites and read the inscriptions and make up stories about the Maya, but they do not read the signs correctly. It’s just their imagination. Other people write about prophecy in the name of the Maya. They say that the world will end in December 2012. The Mayan elders are angry with this. The world will not end. It will be transformed.”
Leonzo Barreno – a Guatemalan native who was trained by Mayan elders to read the ancient calendars – says says the ‘apocalypse’ concept is a false interpretation of the Long Count calendar, that the Mayan elders taught him that December 21 this year simply marks the start of a new calendar:
‘There are two sides to the story,’ he told CBC. ‘The one that we know is this apocalyptic meaning that has been given to the Long Count.
‘The other side of the story is the Mayan side, which you rarely see on media articles, because they never interview my own people.’
‘For them it’s a joyous event, not an apocalyptic event. What is coming is the end of a calendar and the beginning of a new one.
Ricardo Cajas – president of the Collective of Native Organizations of Colectivo de Organizaciones Indígenas de Guatemala – says the date did not represent an end of humanity or fulfillment of the catastrophic prophecies, but that the new cycle “supposes changes in human consciousness.” (Translation).
Pedro Celestino Yac Noj – a Mayan sage living in Cuba – says:
The 21st is for giving thanks and gratitude and the 22nd welcomes the new cycle, a new dawn.
Rather than being the end of the world, Mayan priest Jose Manrique Esquive believes that 2012 may bring a transition to a better time for humankind.
And AP noted in 2009:
Apolinario Chile Pixtun is tired of being bombarded with frantic questions about the Mayan calendar supposedly “running out” on Dec. 21, 2012. After all, it’s not the end of the world.
Definitely not, the Mayan Indian elder insists.
Chile Pixtun, a Guatemalan, says the doomsday theories spring from Western, not Mayan ideas.
And if you don’t believe what the current Mayan leaders say, please remember that archaeologists recently found a cache of ancient Mayan calendars which goes thousands of years past 2012. And see this.
Note: The Mayan elders do make prophetic warnings, but it has nothing to do with 2012. Specifically, they warn that we need to rein in war and pollution or we will destroy ourselves.
Given that numerous end of the world prophecies have come and gone without incident, and that the Pope has declared that – due to a miscalculation – we are currently in AD 2016, not 2012 – it is smart to take all date-specific predictions with a spoonful of cynicism.
Pcies wat ik er zelf altijd van begrepen heb. Transformatie!