“The fact that it was so widespread and so rapid, I think you can pretty much rule out disease,” Bill Kern, an entomologist with the University of Florida’s Research and Education Center, told Florida Today. “It happened essentially almost in one day. Usually diseases affect adults or the brood, you don’t have something that kills them both.”
UTRECHT – Britse wetenschappers vermoeden dat microscopische vervuiling afkomstig van zwaar wegverkeer de hersenen van honingbijen aantast, waardoor de insecten verdwalen.
De nanodeeltjes zouden het bloed en vervolgens de hersenen van bijen binnendringen en daar het natuurlijke navigatiesysteem verstoren.
Bijen kunnen dan na een zoektocht naar nectar de weg naar hun kolonies terug niet meer vinden. Dit zou een bijdrage kunnen leveren aan de mysterieuze bijensterfte die wetenschappers aanduiden met Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD).
Dat er mogelijk een relatie bestaat tussen luchtvervuiling en bijensterfte werd vorig jaar al beschreven in een rapport van het Amerikaanse landbouwministerie.
Aan de Universiteit van Southampton is nu een speciaal team van ecologen en neurowetenschappers samengesteld, dat in de komende drie jaar het precieze verband tussen vervuilende verbindingen uit dieselmotoren en CCD gaat uitpluizen.
De dieseltheorie voegt toe aan een steeds verder groeiende lijst met door onderzoekers aangedragen oorzaken van CCD. Er wordt vooral gezocht naar een verklaring voor een plotse toename van verschillende infectieziekten bij honingbijen en hommels in de afgelopen 5 jaar, die in Europa, Noord-Amerika en Azië wordt waargenomen.
Naast ziektes en sterfte valt het bijenhouders echter op dat hun bijen na een zoektocht naar nectar vaak niet meer terugkeren naar de korf. Eerder werd al gesuggereerd dat de bijennavigatie wordt verstoord door mobiele telefoons.
AUSTRALIAN researchers have been astonished to discover a cure-all right under their noses -- a honey sold in health food shops as a natural medicine.
Far from being an obscure health food with dubious healing qualities, new research has shown the honey kills every type of bacteria scientists have thrown at it, including the antibiotic-resistant "superbugs" plaguing hospitals and killing patients around the world.
Some bacteria have become resistant to every commonly prescribed antibacterial drug. But scientists found that Manuka honey, as it is known in New Zealand, or jelly bush honey, as it is known in Australia, killed every bacteria or pathogen it was tested on.
It is applied externally and acts on skin infections, bites and cuts.
The honey is distinctive in that it comes only from bees feeding off tea trees native to Australia and New Zealand, said Dee Carter, from the University of Sydney's School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences.
The findings are likely to have a major impact on modern medicine and could lead to a range of honey-based products to replace antibiotic and antiseptic creams.
Professor Carter's two sons, Marty, 8 and Nicky, 6, think it's funny the way their mother puts honey on their sores. But she swears by it, telling stories of how quickly it cures any infection.
"Honey sounds very homey and unscientific, which is why we needed the science to validate the claims made for it," she said.
The curative properties of various types of honey have been known to indigenous cultures for thousands of years, and dressing wounds with honey was common before the advent of antibiotics.
"Most bacteria that cause infections in hospitals are resistant to at least one antibiotic, and there is an urgent need for new ways to treat and control surface infections," Professor Carter said.
"New antibiotics tend to have short shelf lives, as the bacteria they attack quickly become resistant. Many large pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic production because of the difficulty of recovering costs. Developing effective alternatives could therefore save many lives."
Professor Carter said the fascinating thing was that none of the bacteria researchers used to test the honey, including superbugs such as flesh-eating bacteria, built up any immunity.
She said a compound in the honey called methylglyoxal -- toxic on its own -- combined in unknown ways with other unidentified compounds in the honey to cause "multi-system failure" in the bacteria.
The results of the research project are published in this month's European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Blamed for Bee Collapse, Monsanto Buys Leading Bee Research Firm
Monsanto, the massive biotechnology company being blamed for contributing to the dwindling bee population, has bought up one of the leading bee collapse research organizations. Recently banned from Poland with one of the primary reasons being that the company’s genetically modified corn may be devastating the dying bee population, it is evident that Monsanto is under serious fire for their role in the downfall of the vital insects. It is therefore quite apparent why Monsanto bought one of the largest bee research firms on the planet.
It can be found in public company reports hosted on mainstream media that Monsanto scooped up the Beeologics firm back in September 2011. During this time the correlation between Monsanto’s GM crops and the bee decline was not explored in the mainstream, and in fact it was hardly touched upon until Polish officials addressed the serious concern amid the monumental ban. Owning a major organization that focuses heavily on the bee collapse and is recognized by the USDA for their mission statement of “restoring bee health and protecting the future of insect pollination” could be very advantageous for Monsanto.
In fact, Beelogics’ company information states that the primary goal of the firm is to study the very collapse disorder that is thought to be a result — at least in part — of Monsanto’s own creations. Their website states:
While its primary goal is to control the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) infection crises, Beeologics’ mission is to become the guardian of bee health worldwide.
What’s more, Beelogics is recognized by the USDA, the USDA-ARS, the media, and ‘leading entomologists’ worldwide. The USDA, of course, has a great relationship with Monsanto. The government agency has gone to great lengths to ensure that Monsanto’s financial gains continue to soar, going as far as to give the company special speed approval for their newest genetically engineered seed varieties. It turns out that Monsanto was not getting quick enough approval for their crops, which have been linked to severe organ damage and other significant health concerns.
Steve Censky, chief executive officer of the American Soybean Association, states it quite plainly. It was a move to help Monsanto and other biotechnology giants squash competition and make profits. After all, who cares about public health?
“It is a concern from a competition standpoint,” Censky said in a telephone interview.
It appears that when Monsanto cannot answer for their environmental devastation, they buy up a company that may potentially be their ‘experts’ in denying any such link between their crops and the bee decline.
Onder het mom van 'dingen aan elkaar knopen die er niet zijn' (of toch niet? )
Vandaag knijterde onderstaande vergelijking binnen:
Die plasma ontladingen uit het verleden hebben hun weg gevonden in tal van symbolische en overdrachtelijke tekens en mythologieën (cult/culturen). QFF besteedt hier ruimschoots aandacht aan.
En dat die beeldende resultaten van plasma ontladingen tot symbolische bouwsteentjes verwerkt werden en worden, tja, dat weten we.
Maar zou de mogelijkheid bestaan dat die bouwsteentjes ook toepasbaar zijn op 'het nieuwe leven' (plasma A.D.) ? De toepassing op onze bijtjes en andere insecten zie ik wel, maar is er meer?
En ergens las ik dat zodra de bijen zouden sterven, dat dan de natuur dusdanig veranderd dat er voor ons mensen geen gewassen en vruchten meer zouden zijn om te overleven of op zijn minst enorm moeilijk zou worden.
Ik heb geen idee, gooi hier gewoon een balletje op...
Even een stukje uit die Wiki over de Sarmoung Broederschap;
The word 'Sarmoung' uses the Armenian pronunciation of the Persian term 'Sarman', which may mean either 'he who preserves the doctrine of Zoroaster', or 'bee'. Regarding the meaning, the author John G. Bennett, a student and aide of the mystic Georges Gurdjieff writes: "The word can be interpreted in three ways. It is the word for bee, which has always been a symbol of those who collect the precious 'honey' of traditional wisdom and preserve it for further generations. A collection of legends, well known in Armenian and Syrian circles with the title of The Bees, was revised by Mar Salamon, a Nestorian Archimandrite in the thirteenth century. The Bees refers to a mysterious power transmitted from the time of Zoroaster and made manifest in the time of Christ.... Man is Persian meaning as the quality transmitted by heredity and hence a distinguished family or race. It can be the repository of an heirloom or tradition. The word sar means head, both literally and in the sense of principal or chief. The combination sarman would thus mean the chief repository of the tradition." Yet another possibility was "those whose heads have been purified", in other words: the enlightened.
The BEE is symbolic of the BUZZING or HUMMING vibration peculiar to the OUTER NOES, or their vehicles. ELEVEN is the number of THOSE WHO ARE WITHOUT, or beyond, the Tree of Life, thus identifying the OUTER ONES.
The BEE is symbolic of the BUZZING or HUMMING vibration peculiar to the OUTER NOES, or their vehicles. ELEVEN is the number of THOSE WHO ARE WITHOUT, or beyond, the Tree of Life, thus identifying the OUTER ONES.
Scientists at Arizona State University have discovered that older honey bees effectively reverse brain aging when they take on nest responsibilities typically handled by much younger bees. While current research on human age-related dementia focuses on potential new drug treatments, researchers say these findings suggest that social interventions may be used to slow or treat age-related dementia.
In a study published in the scientific journal Experimental Gerontology, a team of scientists from ASU and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, led by Gro Amdam, an associate professor in ASU's School of Life Sciences, presented findings that show that tricking older, foraging bees into doing social tasks inside the nest causes changes in the molecular structure of their brains.
Old bees collect nectar and pollen. Most bees start doing this job when they are 3-4 weeks old, and after that they age very quickly. Their bodies and wings become worn and they loose the ability to learn new things. Most food collector bees die after about 10 days
"We knew from previous research that when bees stay in the nest and take care of larvae -- the bee babies -- they remain mentally competent for as long as we observe them," said Amdam. "However, after a period of nursing, bees fly out gathering food and begin aging very quickly. After just two weeks, foraging bees have worn wings, hairless bodies, and more importantly, lose brain function -- basically measured as the ability to learn new things. We wanted to find out if there was plasticity in this aging pattern so we asked the question, 'What would happen if we asked the foraging bees to take care of larval babies again?"
During experiments, scientists removed all of the younger nurse bees from the nest -- leaving only the queen and babies. When the older, foraging bees returned to the nest, activity diminished for several days. Then, some of the old bees returned to searching for food, while others cared for the nest and larvae. Researchers discovered that after 10 days, about 50 percent of the older bees caring for the nest and larvae had significantly improved their ability to learn new things.
Amdam's international team not only saw a recovery in the bees' ability to learn, they discovered a change in proteins in the bees' brains. When comparing the brains of the bees that improved relative to those that did not, two proteins noticeably changed. They found Prx6, a protein also found in humans that can help protect against dementia -- including diseases such as Alzheimer's -- and they discovered a second and documented "chaperone" protein that protects other proteins from being damaged when brain or other tissues are exposed to cell-level stress.
In general, researchers are interested in creating a drug that could help people maintain brain function, yet they may be facing up to 30 years of basic research and trials.
"Maybe social interventions -- changing how you deal with your surroundings -- is something we can do today to help our brains stay younger," said Amdam. "Since the proteins being researched in people are the same proteins bees have, these proteins may be able to spontaneously respond to specific social experiences."
Amdam suggests further studies are needed on mammals such as rats in order investigate whether the same molecular changes that the bees experience might be socially inducible in people.
"History is rife with lost knowledge and traditions whose meaning has blurred with the passage of time. I believe the ‘Bee’ is one such tradition, and that its symbolism was important to civilizations of all ages. Inexplicably, the Bee is dying and nobody is quite sure why. Legend asserts that when the Bee dies out, man will shortly follow. We will review the implications of the Bee’s apparent demise in due course, however in this - our first instalment, we will examine the genesis of the Bee’s symbolism in the mist of prehistory...."
"My research into the Bee has led me on an amazing and unexpected journey of discovery. But what exactly does it all mean? In Prehistory, the Bee was hunted for its honey. In the genesis of society, civilizations such as Sumeria, Ancient Egypt and Greece revered the Bee as a provider of ritualistic, medicinal and agriculturally important by-products. Down through history, the Bee has been venerated as nothing short of a god whose life affirming attributes have been adopted by religions, institutions and governments alike. I’ve labelled the three eras of the Bee; Beedazzled, Beewildered and Beegotten for good reason. The question remains, will there be a fourth era, and if so will it be called Beegone?
Looking back, I wonder what aspect of the Bee first inspired man to regard it as unique and sacred, all those thousands of years ago. Was it something as simple as a Bee's sting? It’s impossible to say really, for any one of the attributes we’ve discussed could easily have catapulted the Bee to its once exalted position within society. My opinions on the matter are far from crystallized, but more and more I keep coming back to sound of the Bee and the notion of Zumbido, or Zum Zum; that which existed first; the buzzing sound of the Bee that has been experienced in shamanic rituals and moments of state changes in consciousness since time immoral. Could the collective unconsciousness of man have internalized the singular importance of the Bee over a period of tens of millions of years? Is that why its sound is experienced during moments of transcendence?
While intriguing, explanations and conclusions on a subject so vast and opaque are nothing if not futile, not to mention speculative. What is less speculative, however, is the fact that the Bee has contributed more to the physical and mental wellbeing of mankind than any other creature, large or small. On reflection, I am reminded of a quote by one of the greatest mythologists of this or any other era – Robert Graves, who spoke of the Bee and the Golden Age of man;
“The Bee has continued through the millennia as a symbol of the soul’s survival after death and limitless existence in the harmony of the Golden age of the World.”
Let’s hope the Bee survives - and thrives, because if it doesn’t, then we only have ourselves to blame."
Laast bewerkt: 11 maanden, 2 weken geleden Door NoMore.
The rare apis mellifera mellifera or British Black honeybee are the only species of bee to have survived a strain of the Spanish flu which wiped out what was thought to be every single bee in the UK
A rare ‘black’ honeybee which was thought to have been wiped out by a strain of Spanish flu in 1919 has been rediscovered in the rafters of a church in Northumberland.
The rare ‘British Black’ is much darker than other bees, and developed in Britain after the last ice age.
The bees that populate Britain today were mostly introduced from abroad – including the popular honeybee.
The rare ‘apis mellifera mellifera’ or British Black honeybee are the only species of bee to have survived a strain of the Spanish flu which wiped out what was thought to be every single bee in the UK.
Experts believed the creatures to be extinct, but a hive of the insects have been breeding for almost 100 years in the eves of a church in Northumberland.
They were discovered in the roof of Whitfield’s Holy Trinity Church after the church warden found the 19th century church littered with bees.
Conservation officer for the Bee Improvement and Bee Breeders’ Association (Bibba) Dorian Pritchard, was called in to help.
Slates were removed from the church by cutting into the roof with an electric saw, but the bees showed no signs of agitation – and no-one was stung.
Dorian first recognised the insects’ unusual dark features.
‘These bees were the native bees in Britain after the Ice Age but in the 1830s we started to import foreign bees.
‘An epidemic wiped out 90 per cent of the population after the First World War.’
The only surviving bees are predominantly black, with a hint of yellow, but much darker than the common bee seen across the UK
The bees that had made their way into the main body of the building died – but wardens were stunned when they made their way up to the roof and stumbled upon a huge swarm of the insects.
The British Black bee is different from other bees as they developed in the UK after the last ice age.
The only surviving bees are predominantly black, with a hint of yellow, but much darker than the common bee seen across the UK.
They are ideally suited the British climate – particularly that in the North of England – and more so than the European Black bee.
The Spanish flu came to the UK in the early 20th century.
After the disaster, the country was repopulated with bees from abroad, which has led to more species of bee, including the popular honey bee.
Bee experts were called to the church in Whitfield to find a way of tackling the nest, only to realise the pesky bees could have been the rare ‘apis mellifera mellifera’ species.
A handful of dead bees were taken away from the church for examinations to confirm Dorian’s hunch that they were British black honeybees.
Plans are now being made to transfer the bees to a hive before they can be rehomed.
Although no-one connected to the church had noticed the bees, the nest is thought to have been occupied for several years.
Estate maintenance manager, Jonathan Archer said: ‘It is fascinating that these bees have possibly been here this long even though they were thought to be extinct.
‘We now hope that by moving them to a new home they will go from strength to strength with help from experts who know how to take care of them.’
Laast bewerkt: 11 maanden, 1 week geleden Door combi.
“Once the bees have left the earth, man will have four years left on the planet.”
The above statement is a paraphrase of a quote Albert Einstein made as he approached his death in 1955. The importance of bees' role in pollination within the food chain has been understood for quite some time. But the eeriness of this statement, made over 50 years ago, is that over the past two years many bee populations around the world have declined dramatically.
Bees pollinate vast amounts of crops, flowers and plants necessary for the food chain to flourish. Einstein may have been referring to the possibility that man may not be able to grow adequate crops to feed the world without pollination. There would also be other disruptions in the food chain as feed for farm animals would be greatly impacted, and plants in general would suffer. In many areas of the U.S. bee populations have declined by 50 percent or more [Source: Cox-Foster]. No specific cause for this drop has been identified, though infections, viruses, pollution and pesticides have all been implicated.
The loss of bees has been dubbed “colony collapse disorder.” To date, there are two popular hypotheses for this phenomenon. The first is the growing number of cellular phone towers. It is thought that the frequencies used by cell towers may disrupt the communication between bees and possibly how the bees migrate to and from the hive. Many experts fear that this issue will not be resolved because little research is being done on the safety of cellular communications. If cell towers are a problem for the bees, what problems could they pose to our children? The answer is not clear, but the public needs to be aware of the possible threat.
The second theory involves genetically modified foods. GMOs are substances that have had some alteration to their original DNA. For example, the seeds of many corn and soy plants have been modified to be resistant to certain pesticides so they can be used without harming the crop. Some researchers have voiced concerns that this area has been overlooked in regard to safety. There are arguments that GMOs may provide poor nutrition for bees or affect their life cycle. Other countries have been hesitant to allow GMOs into their food supply for these reasons. GMOs were “generally recognized as safe” by the FDA, though some authors argued that there was no data to support the decision. Author Jeffrey M. Smith has written two books, Seeds of Change, and The Documented Health Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods, both of which explore many of the concerns with GMOs. Foods in the U.S. that do not alert the consumer of GMO use include potato chips and soy milk.
The demise of the bee is unexplained and unsettling. The safety of GMOs and electromagnetic frequencies from cellular phone towers will be very heated debates as both issues are fueled by billions of dollars. The bees work and thrive by communicating with one another as to where the flowers that need pollinated are located. One of the most important messages that we can gain from the bees now is the need to communicate the issues that may also be threatening our (and their) health and potentially existence. The demise of health care will not be fixed by some radical, partisan solution. It will require that the public be educated on what is truly needed to be healthy. The bees remind us that no matter how fast our technology grows, we are still intertwined with the governance of Mother Nature.