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zo 30 sep 2012, 01:26

Food of the Gods ?

Are mushrooms the real food of the gods? Does it contain a hallucinogenic substance that was known and used by ancient cultures and its priests to gain access to the World of the Gods?
Philip Coppens

http://www.philipcoppens.com/mushrooms.html


Amanita Muscaria, the “red with white dots” mushroom is not only the central setting of many children’s stories; for the American author James Arthur it is the “mushroom that created Mankind”. It comes close to identifying the mushroom with god, but such a literal identification is out of place. What Arthur is suggesting, is that what typifies Mankind, can be found in the hallucinogenic properties of the mushroom.
The Amanita Muscaria is not only famous for its appearances in fairy tales; its colours are also linked with Santa Claus, racing through the skies with his reindeer. Is it a coincidence that reindeer eat this mushroom, and that it grows under the trees we seem to largely grow for Christmas tree purposes?

One of the first researchers to draw attention to the hallucinogenic purposes of the mushroom was Andrija Puharich. Puharich worked for the American government and is specifically famous for his involvement with the psychic Uri Geller, who he brought to the United States for testing. Puharich learned about the hallucinogenic mushroom through his mediums, specifically the Dutch Harry Stone, who spoke and wrote ancient Egyptian while he was in a spontaneous trance. He identified himself as Ra Ho Tep, an Egyptian priest from the times of the pyramids. He described a ritual that centred on mushroom worship. He claimed that the mushroom was worshipped in ancient Egyptian times for its hallucinogenic power, allowing entrance into another dimension, the dimension of the Gods.
The Egyptian Underworld was named Amenta; the mushroom was named Amanita. Coincidence? Perhaps. What is clear, is that the Egyptian Book of the Dead makes numerous references to food of the soul, which allowed Mankind the opportunity to meet with the Gods. Stone told Puharich that the Egyptians labelled this substance “the plant of life”: ankh khut. The ankh-sign is the predecessor of the Christian cross. It is the symbol of life. The symbol also resembles the shape of a mushroom.
Are mushrooms “stargates”? Arthur believes he has identified symbolism in the Mithras cult that depicts such “stargates” and which form a link between mushrooms and religion. Like many mystery traditions, the cult of Mithras involved an initiation, as well as sacred meals. Were mushrooms eaten during such meals?

Puharich asked Stone what exactly an initiation into the mushroom cult involved. Stone replied that this involved “opening the door. Enter it. Disappear through it. But it is only for those who know”. Stone spoke of a blinding light, a thundering sound and an amazing speed which propelled him to various places, at each of which he received specific information – knowledge – mostly about the future.
The presence of a stargate was the central premise of an early 1990s movie, Stargate – later reworked into a television series. The use of the stargate in the movie is largely identical to the description given by Stone. But Stone’s stargate is not a physical structure – it is a mental structure, a mental landscape, created by the mushroom.
A key section of Stone’s description is his ability to enter that dimension and receive information. Is this the mechanism that might have allowed the ancient Egyptians to successfully build their impressive monuments? Did they delve into a pool of knowledge? Perhaps. Without being able to positively say “yes”, it should be clear that the concept of the pyramid and the first building of one, was an idea of Imhotep, who was a priest. And though we should not take Stone’s claims at face value, he does suggest that there was a mushroom cult in ancient Egypt at the time of the pyramids.

Arthur and Puharich are not the only ones who have asked these questions. Terence McKenna believed that the use of hallucinogenic substances was the best method to access other dimensions. Those who had used, had witnessed God. “Direct knowledge” in Greek means “gnosis” and here we are back to our link with the many mystery schools, who largely promoted this concept of “direct knowledge” of the divine.
Gordon Wasson was another researcher who was deeply intrigued into this type of mushroom. He stated that Amanita Muscaria was the true Soma, the divine beverage of the Vedic and Hindu tradition. He underlined both his own work and that of Puharich when he identified a tribe in Mexico that was still worshipping the mushroom when he made contact with them. This was an important breakthrough, as many of his colleagues had labelled his theories as “improbable”. The same was concluded about the existence of mushroom-worshipping tribes.

The oldest depictions of hallucinogenic mushrooms are 7000 to 9000 years old. They are rock engravings in the Sahara, in the Tassilli. Here is a sequence of people that are dancing. Each dancer holds a mushroom-shaped object in his right hand. Two parallel lines radiate from this object, towards the central area of the dancer. Later, people would be depicted with two horns there. It was furthermore this image that inspired the Swiss author Erich von Däniken to label these people “Martians”.
Whereas they do not show aliens, the rocks do show an ancient mushroom cult. It also shows that the mushroom cult was present in a region which has been identified as a key location in the rise of civilisation. It is also important to note that rock markings as a whole are considered by archaeologists as aspects of initiation rituals, and thus part of a religious doctrine. It seems that the evidence argues for just one conclusion: from our earliest known history, there is a clear parallel between the presence of a mushroom and religious ceremonies… to the Gods – via the mushroom?
Greek civilisation knew the Temple of Demeter, the Goddess of the Earth, at Eleusis. Philosophers such as Aristoteles, Plato and Sophocles partook in its rituals. These were the participants in the “Elysian Mysteries”, the contents of which have never been written down, even they continued to exist until well into the Christian era.
They were amongst the thousands of pilgrims who made the 20 km long voyage between Athens and Eleusis, in which huge amounts of money were paid for the privilege to partake in the yearly ceremonies. From a hidden, central room in the temple, a substance derived from mushrooms was given to the participant. They remained in the temple for the duration of one night, but left in the morning, “forever changed”.

Was the mushroom the centre of the Egyptian civilisation? Puharich states that the Egyptian language does not have a word for mushroom. Does this imply the Egyptians did not know of them? It seems unlikely. Though the mushrooms needs humidity and trees to grow and Egypt might not seem an ideal candidate to offer either, Egypt’s current climate is different from that of 4000 years ago.
An alternative suggestion is that they did know, and that it was indeed the “food of the gods”, which they often do refer to as “what is it?” – a food that allowed direct communication with the gods.
It is known that the priests made sure that the secret of how to contact the gods was kept hidden from the general public. Perhaps it was merely a secret because of the scarcity of the mushroom and that it was felt that its use should be the sole privilege of the priesthood. So, the absence of evidence, might in this case be the best evidence of presence… for the “food of the god” was one of the best – if not the best – secrets of ancient Egypt.

This article originally appeared in Frontier Magazine 8.2 (March/April 2002).
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ma 01 okt 2012, 12:38

Amanita Notes
Notes on Amanita muscaria ranging from consumption to cultivation.

Amanita Notes
by Michael S. Smith

October, 1997
http://www.shroomery.org/8670/Amanita-Notes


Harvesting Amanita muscaria
Depending on your climate Amanita muscaria will fruit from late Summer until Fall. In my own area of the upper Ohio River Valley the mushrooms will stop fruiting concurrent with the falling of the leave. It is a beautiful sight to come upon a site of these mushrooms, ranging in size from 2 inches to nearly a foot in diameter, and anywhere from a deep yellow or orange to a soft yellow or orange. Many will be dark orange at the apex surrounded by a halo of yellow. Some of the most recent ones I've gathered are of a pure gold, while others are the pure white Amanita muscaria v. alba. The stems can also be variable, from thin to thick, with basal rings or without, with small bases or bulbous. Though many mycologist give very detailed descriptions I have spoken with some individuals that say the species has quite variable features, even among the red variety. A very good book to read up on Amanita muscaria recognition and identification is David Arora's Mushrooms Demystified.

My own method of searching out this mysterious mushroom is by driving through the suburbs after a day of good rains or nice misty nights and passing slowly through the neighborhood peering under simply what I call pine trees. Here in our area we have numerous old pines scattered around homes but very few that grow in the wild. Many of the limbs grow all the way down to the ground, therefore it may be necessary to look under them, especially if they are in a dense clump. I can imagine someone looking into their backyard and seeing me climb out from under a clump of their trees with a handful, or sometimes a box full, of mushrooms. But don't think it's that hard, I've also seen many that have grown nearly 5 yards from the nearest tree.

Since these mushrooms grow almost always in residential neighborhoods I can often be found stopping at the side of the road rather quickly. I sometimes feel that I should have a sticker that says "this vehicle comes to sudden stops." Of course I put my blinkers on and jump out for the gathering, many a driver and homeowner peering on as I wave to them with a handful of Amanita muscaria's. Usually this can be done rather quickly and you can be on your way to the next patch, but sometimes, especially if a lot of mushrooms are present, or if they are in a sensitive area of the yard, you might want to ask the residents for permission. Occasionally I will go to the door and ask if I can collect their bounty. This gets many strange comments, including how they are toadstools and poisonous, or inquiries asking what I plan on doing with them. I have a number of different reasons for gathering them that are dependent on my first impression of the individuals. I most commonly say they are going to be sold to a friend who uses them for arts and craft, sometimes I will say they can be eaten, but that they have to be prepared a certain way or else they will be poisonous, and once I even claimed I was a biology student at the local university collecting them for study. When doing these runs into other peoples yards I would recommend that one dress as non-threatening as possible. If you do happen to have a run in with a resident be as friendly as possible and think fast about what to tell them. And if you get engaged in conversation about the mushrooms ask them what they know about them, you may be able to find out about their own cultural understanding of the Amanita muscaria.

Eventually you will find that the mushrooms will continue growing under a certain stand of trees for the season and you can return there once or twice a week. Interestingly I have found many Amanita muscaria growing in one spot one season, but upon my return the next they have not returned. Therefore I recommend that you allow the mushrooms to sporinate before harvesting and that you also leave a few to follow their normal cycle of birth and return to the earth. One year I collected so many from the local golf course that the next year was almost devoid of them. You should have seen me walking around with a bag collecting mushrooms as golfers, who often mistook the unopened caps for their golf balls, looked on in wonderment.

Once you get near the mushrooms sit among them for a few minutes if possible, they are a wonderful sight to behold and have a very mysterious resonance about them. Admire them for a little bit before they become sacrificial victims. Most of the time you will find the mushrooms in their many different stages of growth, from just raising their round heads above the ground to total decomposition. The ones you really want to look for are those that are dried on the stalk as these are said, by some contemporary commentators and the native Siberians, to be the most potent in regards to their effects. These are also the most difficult specimens to find simply because the weather conditions have to be in such a state to allow the mushroom to dry without rotting. The second most desirable state to collect is those that are in the process of sporination. These can be recognized by their nearly horizontal parasol, upturning parasol, or tears in the striations along the edge of the cap. The least desirable specimens are those which some might consider the most desirable. They are the ones that are still in the process of expanding and are not in sporination, but which are the most divine looking in shape and color. If at all possible leave these behind and come back in a day or two to see if they are still around. It is said that the smaller ones are the most potent as well, but remember, get them after their sporination. When removing the Amanita muscaria I recommend first giving the cap a few good taps to knock out spores for future harvests and then cutting off the cap at the uppermost part of the stem. If in sporination the stem should be ripe with fallen spores that will eventually make their way back into the ground.

The most common enemies to the Amanita muscaria are gnat larvae, snails, squirrels, deer, lawn mowers, and possibly polluted rain. Gnat larvae are probably the worst enemies, drilling up from the stem and into the cap, often devouring the gills and inner meat while avoiding the immediate cap, possibly due to its chemical makeup. Snails don't do much damage, but will often leave a hole or two through the stem and cap as well as some dried slime. Squirrels will usually just take a bit or two, leaving a majority of the cap, but a deer will bite the whole cap off, leaving just a stem poking out of the ground. The worst fate is to return a day or two later after waiting for full sporination to find the mushrooms ground up by a mower or trampled underfoot by the neighborhood children. The last possible enemy to Amanita muscaria growth would appear to be acidified rain. From my own experience I've noticed that Amanita muscaria populations are almost non-existent in the Eastern suburbs of our largest metropolitan area, while to the West they grow in incredible abundance. My only explanation is that the top soil in the East has become polluted by the airborne particles carried out of the city and dropped by rain in the Eastern suburbs, thereby inhibiting the production of mycelia.

Preparation and Ingestion

The most important aspect of Amanita muscaria preparation lies in the drying and/or of heating of the mushroom. What these two processes do is convert the less powerful Ibotenic acid into the highly psychopharacologically chemical muscimol through decarboxylation. If this is not done then the potency as an inebrient is lessened. There are a number of ways to do this.

The fresh mushroom can be roasted over an open flame via the Wasson technique discovered by a friend of his in Japan who roasted the mushroom over an open fire and then consumed it with euphoric effects. One technique that I have tried was over a fire as well, but was a little different. I had taken the unripened parasol caps and placed them upside down on a gas grill set on low. As the mushroom heated up liquid condensed in the cup and was drunk. This produced a strong sense of euphoria in which I could not help but dance around and sing to myself (both very common reports by Siberians of Amanita muscaria intoxication). A very pleasurable experience from a total of about 2 tablespoons of the liquid. One later thought was to take these same mushrooms after collecting the condensed liquid and to press out the remaining juices, but instead I swallowed them in large pieces and retched horribly. I've also noticed that as I've oven dried my Amanita muscaria's a liquid would drain out of the mushrooms onto the cooking sheet. This liquid might be easily collected by taking the cooking sheet and attaching a screen of some sort a few centimeters above it and allow the liquid to drip into the sheet and dry for later removal. But I believe a dehydrator is the best at keeping their shape and color. One might even want to try expressing the juices from raw or rehydrated mushrooms and then heating the remaining liquid. This liquid may also be dehydrated and gel-capped.

If you have dried your mushrooms then one can simply eat them or else do the hot water method of preparation by bringing some water to the near simmer point, but not quite rolling point, at about 190 degrees, and add the ground mushrooms. Let this cook in the water for about a half hour to an hour and them consume, water, ground mushrooms and all. For those of you who can't stand the taste of dried mushrooms or the tea (like myself who for some strange reason has the gag reflex the minute I try to swallow, and sometimes when I just smell) the gel-cap method may work best. Simply take the dried mushrooms, grind them up, and stuff into gel-caps. One might also take the tea, dehydrate it, and then gel-cap. I have never tried the tea method, but it may be possible that this method increases the muscimol levels even above drying, so this type of gel-cap method might be worth a try. Since the majority of the alkaloids reside within the caps skin it might also be worth a try either to peal off the skin from fresh mushrooms and dry, or else remove the gills from dried specimens, to reduce the amount needing to be consumed.

A few other less common methods may be worth mentioning, the first is the possibility that the juice of the mushroom could be absorbed through the skin. This method is described by Adrian Morgan in the wonderful and beautiful book Toads and Toadstools, and is the only place I've ever heard of such an avenue of ingestion. This method might work best with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), a aprotic solvent. Another interesting method would be by enema or direct insertion of the mushroom into the vagina, the second method certainly not being condoned as it might easily produce infection, or worse. Clark Heinrich, in his excellent book Strange Fruit, makes suggestions that in Tantric texts and art there exists evidence pointing towards these routes of administration in highly symbolic rituals. Smoking the mushroom has also proven to produce mild effects. Since the skin contains the highest concentrations of muscimol it can be peeled off fresh mushrooms and dried or else the gills and stem can be discarded from dried specimens. I personally would be interested in seeing the effects of smoked concentrated extract or pure muscimol.

The last method I would like to mention is the most interesting and may produce the strongest effects. This is to combine any of the above methods with Peganum harmala seeds or extract to produce monoamine oxidase inhibition. I have never tried this method myself but am aware of one such experimentation which produced very strong effects. I've been awaiting a report from this acquaintance, but have yet to receive it. I first heard of this technique from an employee of an occult bookstore and herbal center which sells many uncontrolled entheogens. This employee, and practitioner of Wiccan magic, stated that if Peganum harmala is used with Amanita muscaria the Amanita muscaria dosage could be cut in half. I first thought she was confusing her mushrooms, as a dosage of Psilocybin mushrooms can be halved when taken with P. harmala. I mentioned this to her, and to my surprise she stated that she has tried the Amanita muscaria/P. harmala combination. I later talked with the owner of the store who stated that there is a history of this combination. I personally am unaware of this type of usage in the entheogen community, but it's possible that it exists in Wiccan practices. Upon my mentioning of this combination on the old Visionary Plant List I received a response from JRH who had mentioned this to J. Ott as a way to clear up the linguistic controversy of Wasson's and Flattery's opposing theories. JRH stated that Ott didn't have anything to say about this possibility.

Due to environmental factors and the possibility that the time of harvesting (see Amanita muscaria myths below) effects the alkaloid level and composition of each mushroom it is important to make an attempt to equalize the alkaloid content of the collection you have. This can be done by grinding up all the Amanita muscaria's you have into a powder or else dicing them into small chunks and thoroughly mixing together. The powder is best used in the tea or gel cap method, while the diced mushrooms are good for eating dry or cooking with. If you have whole fresh mushrooms to be heated or dried caps each individual should get an equal portion of each mushroom so that everyone gets exactly the same amount and concentration of alkaloids. By this you can possibly avoid differences in effects among the individual participants.

A couple interesting myths have surrounded these mushrooms for a number or years of which I have difficulty accepting due to their lack of controlled scientific study. The first of these is that North American specimens lack the potency levels of Eurasian specimens. Personally I don't see how a scientific control group could be produced with a mushroom that is reputed to contain highly variable alkaloid contents from mushroom to mushroom. Now if controlled experiments could be done in a lab environment with North American and Eurasian specimens grown in the same substrate and with identical environmental conditions and then tested for alkaloid concentrations the results might be more reliable. (Hell, it could be the tree which define the mushrooms alkaloids.) But until this is possible I will accept it as a drug enforcement lie produced to discourage experimentation. Also, don't forget that mushrooms are not plants that have difficulty disseminating throughout the world. The spores are easily transported through the air by wind currents, so I doubt there is any distinctions between North American and Eurasian Amanita muscaria. Just a thought.

A second rumor is that Amanita muscaria collected in the beginning of the season are more potent, and less toxic to the system, than those collected towards the end of the season. I personally have not done any experimentation in this area, but I do believe that further scientific study is needed to verify this information. From what I understand this is myth has some support in the ethnobotanical lore of Siberian tribes.

Once you are ready to explore the realms of Amanita muscaria intoxication it is recommended that you start by equalizing the strength of the mushrooms by the above mentioned methods. A low dose trial is always in order to test the power of the material you have and to examine how ones body reacts to this particular collection of mushrooms. I believe 5 grams or less is a good starting point which can be gradually increased according to ones desires. Usually the first effects can be felt within the first half hour and vary according to each individuals constitution, but any augmentation of dosage should not be consumed until the effects are in full swing, about 2 hours after ingestion.

The Amanita muscaria Intoxication
The Amanita muscaria intoxication can be quite variable, from nausea, sweating, and salivation produced from a high level of muscarine in the mushroom, to the more desirous effects of euphoria, elevated mood, auditory and visual hallucinations, and increased strength and stamina produced by the muscimol, or the best of all, to feel the desire to dance and sing. But it must be understood that within this mushroom is heaven and hell. While with one experiment you can find bliss, within the next you may find terror. In one you may feel power and strength and in the next find the deepest somnambulance. This mushroom makes no guarantees, and I believe that it is just such a lack of predictability that has instilled this mushroom with such awe and mystery through Old and New World alike. These are not organisms that you want to carelessly ingest, therefore I suggest that someone care and supervise for you. And unless they are truly sick in body I would attempt to refrain from calling an ambulance, the sickness will pass in time. And remember to first identify Amanita muscaria from its more deadly relatives, A. phalloides, A. ocreata, A. virosa, and A. verna, before gathering on your own. Each of these potentially deadly species can be differentiated from Amanita muscaria by their saclike volva. If you have any doubt whatsoever about the mushroom you have then discard it.

Cultivation
Amanita muscaria cultivation in a lab environment has always been an impossibility due to the symbiotic mycorrhizal relationship of this mushroom to its host trees. But if one has the necessary host trees in their area, and resides in the proper temperate zone or elevation, try and simply take a few dried or fresh caps that are in sporination (fully flattened or upturning with longitudinal tears along the striations), crush them up thoroughly, and mix the crushings into the top soil. See if it will take. If one doesn't want to make the initial investment of the caps simply chop up the stems from sporinating specimens, which will naturally have collected some of the falling spores, and mix with the soil. Clark Heinrich states that he simply buries the stems under the proper host tree for cultivation, but then again he probably lives the the perfect environment. I would recommend that this be done in the Fall soon after the fruiting season or in early Spring so that the spores can receive their proper life cycle. My own observations (I've yet to actually learn this) of Amanita muscaria growth suggest that mycelia growth takes place primarily throughout the Spring and Summer months and is highly dependent on rain and soil moisture preceding the Fall fruiting. If the season is dry just water your mushroom garden every few days. A host tree in a large container that can be left outdoors year round may be a candidate for cultivation if one is in the right zone.

Last Thoughts
I can't help but reiterate to the reader that just because some modern people cannot seem to consistently feel the same effects from Amanita muscaria as is postulated the ancients did in no way should lessen the theory of Amanita muscaria being the divine Soma of the 4000 year old Rigveda and one of the world oldest religious tools. As is well know shamanism didn't just mean kicking back after the ingestion of an entheogen, the way which many moderns work with entheogens. Instead archaic man was very proficient in many techniques to alter their state of awareness, and these no doubt where used in combination with the mushroom, thereby altering the purely psychopharmacological effects of the mushrooms alkaloids. Modern man is also much more familiar with strong synthetic chemical hallucinogens. In our age of LSD, Psilocybin, and DMT we can't help but feel that anything less than the experiences these produce could be considered powerful. But to the ancient Siberians, whose familiarity with stronger entheogens was nonexistent, an Amanita muscaria experience, which can induce both heaven or hell, would certainly take on Godly proportions. Might it even be possible that as the earliest waves of archaic man past over the present day Americas they brought with them their Amanita muscaria traditions, nesting in a few spots such as the Pacific Northwest, Canada, the Great Lakes region, Mexico, and Guatemala, and that some sought out new allies in Psilocybe species, Yage, and Ebena. Our reference for a Godly entheogenic experience has changed from that of archaic mankind. Many believe this mushroom lacks entheogenic value, but history has shown that it has long been valued by mankind, throughout Europe, Siberia, and in the Americas. I think it is unwise to compare our western philosophical understanding of Amanita muscaria to that of the religio-magical experiences of the ancients. This is a powerful mushroom that deserves our respect and attention for possibly being the ancient source for that which makes us human.
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do 04 okt 2012, 10:56

Eerste even een crosslink naar het mysteriën topic

From January of 1959 to July of 1961, John Newland directed and hosted a unique television program entitled 'One Step Beyond'. Newland and his creative crew combed the literature and produced 96 episodes of excellent programming based on real stories of psychic and paranormal phenomena. When the Twilight Zone series was about to go into production, Rod Serling actually met with Newland and assured him that his new program was not going to step on his toes or rip off One Step Beyond.

Newland dramatized actual (or reported actual) events, such as premonitions and other psychic episodes surrounding the Titanic disaster, or Abraham Lincoln’s presentiment of his own assassination. The most interesting show of the entire series has to be “The Sacred Mushroom,” which aired on January 4, 1961. Accompanied by three research scientists, and leaving the cloistered atmosphere of Hollywood sound stages, Newland traveled to a small village in the mountains of central Mexico to investigate the mysterious mushrooms.

bron: http://www.dailygrail.com/Mind-Mysterie ... Psi-TV-60s

One Step Beyond - The Sacred Mushroom (1/3)


One Step Beyond - The Sacred Mushroom (2/3)


One Step Beyond - The Sacred Mushroom (3/3)
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vr 30 nov 2012, 01:24

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wo 09 jan 2013, 00:26

Ayahuasca and Human Destiny
Dennis McKenna

http://www.ayahuasca.com/ayahuasca-over ... n-destiny/


My good friend and colleague, Dr. Charles Grob, has extended a kind invitation to submit a contribution to this special edition of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, devoted to the topic of ayahuasca, for which he has been selected as guest editor. I’m pleased to be asked and happy to respond, particularly since I have collaborated for many years with Dr. Grob and other colleagues who are represented here, on various aspects of the scientific study of ayahuasca. For most of the last 33 years, ayahuasca has been one of the major preoccupations of my life.

In that time, I have written extensively on the botany, chemistry, and pharmacology of ayahuasca, on its potential therapeutic uses, and on the need for more, and more rigorous, scientific and clinical investigations of this remarkable plant decoction. Working with colleagues such as Dr. Grob, my good friends Jace Callaway and Dr. Luis Eduardo Luna in Finland, my mentor Dr. Neil Towers, my late and beloved brother Terence, Dr. Glaucus de Souza Brito, and others, to investigate the myriad mysteries of ayahuasca, has been as rich and rewarding an experience as any scientist could ever hope for.

Partly as a result of our collective efforts, over the last few decades ayahuasca has become one of the most thoroughly studied of the traditional shamanic plant hallucinogens. We now have a firm understanding of the plant species that are utilized in its preparation, including the diverse pharmacopoeia of ayahuasca admixture plants, a shamanic technology unto itself that begs additional investigation. We understand the chemistry of the active constituents of its primary botanical components, and have better insight into its remarkable synergistic pharmacology.

We have identified potential therapeutic applications for ayahuasca and the role that it may some day find in healing the physical and spiritual wounds of individuals, if it is ever afforded its rightful place in medical practice. Ethnographically, my colleagues and I have made contributions to an understanding of the central role that ayahuasca already has in the context of Amazonian shamanism and ethnomedicine. We have described, and written about, its status as a window into the sacred cosmology of magic, witchcraft, transcendent experience, and healing that permeates and defines the practices of Mestizo ethnomedicine.

The visionary paintings of Peruvian shaman and artist Pablo Amaringo, brought so beautifully to the attention of the world by Dr. Luis Eduardo Luna, has helped to make that tradition accessible to many who would otherwise have seen it (if they were aware of it at all) as alien, exotic, and incomprehensible. To an extent, our work has shed some small light on the more contemporary role of ayahuasca as the sacramental vehicle of syncretic religious movements that originated in Brasil and now are reaching out globally, if incrementally, to embrace a sick and wounded world that desperately yearns for the healing that this mind/body/spirit medicine can offer.

The story of ayahuasca, and our evolving understanding of its place in the world, and of its significance for medicine, pharmacology, ethnobotany, and shamanic studies, is far from over, and in fact, it may have just begun. I would like to believe that is the case. But for the purposes of this contribution, rather than submit yet another dense and lengthy review on the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, &c., of ayahuasca, I have chosen to adopt a broader perspective, and to indulge in some reflections, and speculations on the past and future of ayahuasca of the sort that a scientist, probably mercifully, rarely shares with his colleagues or the larger world.

meer hier: http://www.ayahuasca.com/ayahuasca-over ... n-destiny/
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ma 29 apr 2013, 13:36

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do 25 jul 2013, 13:59

Paus noemt legalisering drugs 'geen oplossing'
25 juli 2013 11:23

Paus Franciscus heeft zich woensdag in Brazilië duidelijk uitgesproken tegen de legalisering van drugs als middel om drugsverslaving te bestrijden.

bron en meer: http://www.nu.nl/buitenland/3534320/pau ... ssing.html
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vr 20 jun 2014, 21:54

#podcast37
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di 23 dec 2014, 19:49

Boink ;D
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di 23 dec 2014, 23:09

Jo Arni

Lang niet gesproken man! Verkoop je nog steigerhouten illuminatie kerstbomen ;D

Fijne Inquisitie

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Deze boom groeit er naast, heeft vast een Sjamaan met zijn nekkie vast gezeten....
(foto's genomen op de Havelterberg, Drenthe)

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wo 24 dec 2014, 16:48

He Octa

Ja hoor, nog steeds in het steigerhout :D

Jij ook fijne Inquisitie ;)
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wo 24 dec 2014, 20:55

Wilkommen terug Arminius! :) Nice to see ya back!
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wo 27 mei 2015, 10:41

Psychedelische drugs als paddo's en LSD zouden u zomaar van uw psychische problemen af kunnen helpen. Dat zegt de Britse hoogleraar James Rucker.
S. Reedijk

27 mei 2015 09:53
http://www.powned.tv/nieuws/tech/2015/0 ... gekte.html


Volgens de dokter zouden tripdrugs dan ook uit het verdomhoekje moeten worden gehaald vanwege de bijzonder gunstige effecten op mensen met psychische problemen. Dat schrijft http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/ ... -says.html The Telegraph vandaag.

Een grondig onderzoek naar de positieve effecten van psychedelische drugs is echter lastig, omdat de genotsmiddelen door de overheid verboden zijn. Diverse studies uit de jaren '50 en '60 lieten wel al doorschemeren dat er positieve effecten aan de drugs kleven. De onderzoeken moesten in 1967 echter worden stopgezet omdat eventueel medisch gebruik van psychedelica toen verboden werd vanwege gezondheidsrisico's.

"Er is geen bewijs dat psychedelische drugs verslavend zijn", weerlegt Rucker, "en er is maar weinig bewijs voor dat de middelen gevaarlijk zijn als ze in een gecontroleerde omgeving worden gebruikt." Volgens Rucker is er juist veel historisch bewijs voor dat psychedelica nuttig zijn tegen geestesziekten.

Tripmiddelen zouden mensen van hun alcohol- en rookverslaving af kunnen helpen, maar zouden ook effectief kunnen worden ingezet als remedie tegen onder andere clusterhoofdpijn, angststoornissen en obsessief compulsief gedrag.
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di 04 aug 2015, 22:52

The word pharmacy comes from the Greek pharmakeia which meant poison magic
illuminati of my own reality
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